GSWP-2 Input Data

The input data for models in GSWP-2 are divided into three categories:
The soil and vegetation data are parameter data sets that are used to specify characteristics of the land surface. The meteorological data provide the forcing at the upper boundary of the land surface.

Soils data

The soils data include more information that will be needed for any one model, in order to accomodate some of the variations in soil specification used by different LSSs. Three overlapping data sets for specifying soil hydraulic properties are given: Sand, silt, clay and organic fractions; a soil texture map and look-up table based on USDA categories; and calculated gridded soil parameters. This should accomodate the major methods employed by current LSSs. The parameter tables and gridded parameters are based on the Cosby et al. (1984) approach - if another methodology is prefered (e.g., van Genuchten 1980), the modelers will have to derive their own parameters. We will gladly post any other data sets that modeling groups derive, so that they may be shared with others.

The table below lists the soil parameters that are provided for GSWP-2. All are time-invariant global fields at 1 resolution (land points only 60S-90N). The final field, initital soil temperature, is computed from the mean June air temperature, and should be used as the initial soil temperature at the beginning of the model spin-up (1 July 1982).

Name

Description

Units

Range

Source

Time scale

SoilClass

Soil texture class

-

Max = 12

Min = 0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

SoilDepth

Depth of active soil column

m

Max = 30.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-I

fixed

Clay

Clay fraction

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

Sand

Sand fraction

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

Silt

Silt fraction

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

Organic

Organic fraction

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

Elevation

Mean grid elevation

m

Max = 9000.0

Min = -400.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

Slope

Mean slope

m m-1

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.01

ISLSCP-II

fixed

W_fieldcap

Field capacity

m3 m-3

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

W_wilt

Wilting point

m3 m-3

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

W_sat

Saturated water content

m3 m-3

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

CEA84

fixed

W_bpower

B exponent

-

Max = 15.0

Min = 1.0

CEA84

fixed

W_sat_hydc

Saturated hydraulic conductivity

m s-1

Max = 0.0001

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

CEA84

fixed

W_sat_matp

Saturated matric potential

m

Max = -0.0001

Min = -3.0

CEA84

fixed

Albedo_vi

Visible albedo of soil (snow free)

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-I

fixed

Albedo_ir

Near-infrared albedo of soil (snow free)

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-I

fixed

Albedo_soil

Total albedo of soil (snow free)

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-I

fixed

Cti

Compound topographic index

-

Max = 13.5

Min = 0.0

ISLSCP-II

fixed

SoilTemp_init

Initial soil temperature

-

Max = 350.0

Min = 190.0

NCEP

fixed


The SoilClass data set is a global map of texture classes, based on the USGS soil texture classifications. The table below gives the relevant texture data. Cosby values for silt are estimated, as they were not provided in the original RhoneAGG data set from which the parameters are taken. The quartz content data come from Peters-Lidard et al. (1998). Note: Corrected 1 Nov 2005 - some properties were swapped among categories 4-6 and between 8 and 9.

Texture


USDA


Cosby (RhoneAGG) USDA

Class


Sand

Silt

Clay

Quartz

Wfc

Wwilt

Wsat

b

PHIsat

Ksat

1

Sand

92%

5%

3%

0.92

0.132

0.033

0.373

3.30

-0.05

2.45E-05

2

Loamy Sand

82%

12%

6%

0.82

0.156

0.051

0.386

3.80

-0.07

1.75E-05

3

Sandy Loam

58%

32%

10%

0.60

0.196

0.086

0.419

4.34

-0.16

8.35E-06

4

Loam

43%

39%

18%

0.40

0.250

0.148

0.437

5.96

-0.24

4.66E-06

5

Silt Loam

17%

70%

13%

0.25

0.270

0.169

0.476

5.25

-0.65

2.36E-06

6

Silt

10%

85%

5%

0.10

0.361

0.045

0.471

3.63

-0.84

1.10E-06

7

Sandy Clay Loam

58%

15%

27%

0.60

0.253

0.156

0.412

7.32

-0.12

6.31E-06

8

Clay Loam

32%

34%

34%

0.35

0.301

0.211

0.447

8.34

-0.28

2.72E-06

9

Silty Clay Loam

10%

56%

34%

0.10

0.334

0.249

0.478

8.41

-0.63

1.44E-06

10

Sandy Clay

52%

6%

42%

0.52

0.288

0.199

0.415

9.70

-0.12

4.25E-06

11

Silty Clay

6%

47%

47%

0.10

0.363

0.286

0.478

10.78

-0.58

1.02E-06

12

Clay

22%

20%

58%

0.25

0.353

0.276

0.450

12.93

-0.27

1.33E-06


Vegetation Data

Both NDVI and phenology data are provided as monthly mean values that can be used for specifying the time-varying vegetation properties as each modeler sees fit. For models that simulate vegetation phenology, these data may be used for initialization, validation, etc.

Monthly-varying and static vegetation parameters are listed below. For models that using a mosaic or tilig structure, data on the fractional coverage of each grid box by each vegetation type for the IGBP and U. Maryland vegetation data classFrac are provided.

Name

Description

Units

Range

Source

Time scale

Period

VegClass

Vegetation class

-

Max = 21

Min = 0

IGBP, U. Maryland

fixed

-

LAI

Leaf area index

m2 m-2

Max = 8.08

Min = 0.0

UK

Univ. of Wales

monthly

1982-1995

vegFrac

Fraction of vegetation cover

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

UK

fixed

-

grnFrac

Greenness fraction

(green LAI / Total LAI)

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

Calculated from Univ. of Wales data

monthly

1982-1995

classFrac

Fraction of each VegClass

(not in ALMA variable list)

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

IGBP; U. Maryland

fixed

-

NDVI

Normalized difference vegetation index

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

UK

monthly

1982-1995

FPAR

Fraction of photosynthetically active radiation

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

UK

monthly

1982-1995

Z0Surf

Roughness length

m

Max = 10.0

Min = 0.0

UK

monthly

1982-1995

DisplH

Zero plane displacement height

m

Max = 50.0

Min = 0.0

UK

monthly

1982-1995

Albedo

Snow-free albedo

-

Max = 1.0

Min = 0.0

CSU

monthly

1982-1995

RootDepth

Root depth (mean 50% and 95% ecosystem rooting depth)

m

Max = 30.0

Min = 0.1

ISLSCP-II

fixed

-

Rs_min

Minimum stomatal resistance

s m-1

Max = 1000.0

Min = 10.0

Look-up table

fixed

-


The vegetation data include class data from IGBP and U. Maryland; the IGBP data are in several flavors, including BATS and SiB vegetation categories (see table below). If modelers require vegetation data of a different style, e.g., plat functional types, the modelers will have to derive their own data, preferably consistent with the IGBP data set. Again, we encourage anyone generating PFT or other unique vegetation data sets to allow them to be posted on the GSWP-2 site.


IGBP Land Cover

Simple Biosphere (SiB) Model Land Cover

Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) Land Cover

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Evergreen Needleleaf Forest

Evergreen Broadleaf Forest

Deciduous Needleleaf Forest

Deciduous Broadleaf Forest

Mixed Forest

Closed Shrublands

Open Shrublands

Woody Savannas

Savannas

Grasslands

Permanent Wetlands

Croplands

Urban and Built-Up

Cropland & Natural Vegetation

Snow and Ice

Barren or Sparsely Vegetated

Water Bodies

Missing Data

1

2

3

4

5

6


7

8


9

10


11

12

13

14

15

16

Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

Broadleaf Deciduous Trees

Deciduous and Evergreen Trees

Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

Deciduous Needleleaf Trees

Ground Cover with Trees and Shrubs

Groundcover Only

Broadleaf Shrubs with Perennial Ground Cover

Broadleaf Shrubs with Bare Soil

Groundcover with Dwarf Trees and Shrubs

Bare Soil

Agriculture or C3 Grassland

Persistent Wetland

Water

Ice Cap and Glacier

Missing Data

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

Crops, Mixed Farming

Short Grass

Evergreen Needleleaf Trees

Deciduous Needleleaf Trees

Deciduous Broadleaf Trees

Evergreen Broadleaf Trees

Tall Grass

Desert

Tundra

Irrigated Crops

Semi-desert

Ice Caps and Glaciers

Bogs and Marshes

Inland Water

Ocean

Evergreen Shrubs

Deciduous Shrubs

Mixed Forest

Forest/Field Mosaic

Water and Land Mixtures

Missing Data



Meteorological data

The near-surface meteorological data for GSWP are based on atmospheric reanalyses (NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 for the baseline simulations) at 3-hour intervals. For most of the fields (listed in the table below), the reanalysis data has been hybridized with observational data, or corrected for differences in elevation between the reanaysis model topography and the ISLSCP Initiative II mean topography.

The state variables (Tair, Qair, Wind and Psurf) are instantaneous values at the timestamp of the data file. The flux fields (radiation and precipitation) represent 3-hour averages beginning at the timestamp. A Fortran subroutine is provided that will interpolate the forcing data to shorter model time-steps.

Name

Description

Units

Range

Source

Time Scale

Tair

Near surface air temperature at 2m

K

Max = 350

Min = 190

NCEP, CRU

3 hourly

Qair

Near surface specific humidity at 2m

kg kg-1

Max = 0.07

Min = 0

NCEP, CRU

3 hourly

Wind

Near surface wind speed at 10m

m s-1

Max = 75

Min = 0

NCEP

3 hourly

SWdown

Surface incident shortwave radiation

W m-2

Max = 1360

Min = 0

SRB (with NCEP for spin-up period)

3 hourly

LWdown

Surface incident longwave radiation

W m-2

Max = 750

Min = 0

As above

3 hourly

Psurf

Surface pressure

Pa

Max = 113000

Min = 50000

NCEP, EDC

3 hourly

Rainf

Rainfall rate

kg m-2 s-1

Max = 0.03

Min = 0

NCEP, GPCC

GPCP (and CRU for spin-up period)

3 hourly

Rainf_C

Convective rainfall rate

kg m-2 s-1

Max = 0.03

Min = 0

As above

3 hourly

Snowf

Snowfall rate

kg m-2 s-1

Max = 0.007

Min = 0

As above

3 hourly


Each variable is saved under a different URL in the DODS servers. For the most part the file names correspond to the variable names.  However, for some fields that have multiple versions or levels, there will be a suffix appended on the end of the ALMA name.  The following table shows all of the files that correspond to the input data fields for the baseline (B0) simulation.

Fixed Fields

File

SoilClass

soilclass

SoilDepth

soildepth

Clay

clay

Sand

sand

Silt

silt

Organic

organic

Elevation

elevation

Slope

slope

W_fieldcap

w_fieldcap

W_wilt

w_wilt

W_sat

w_sat

W_bpower

w_bpower_cea84

W_sat_hydc

w_sat_hydc

W_sat_matp

w_sat_matp

Albedo_vi

albedo_vi

Albedo_ir

albedo_ir

Albedo_soil

albedo_soil

VegClass

vegclass_igbp, _sib, _bats

classFrac

classfrac

RootDepth

rootdepth_50, _95

vegFrac

vegfrac

Cti

cti

SoilTemp_init

soiltemp_init

Grid only

File

Landmask

landmask

Monthly Fields

File

LAI

lai

grnFrac

grnfrac

NDVI

ndvi

FPAR

fpar

Z0Surf

z0surf

DisplH

displh

Albedo

albedo_csu

3-hourly Fields

File

Tair

tair_cru

Qair

qair_cru

Wind

wind_ncep

SWdown

swdown_srb

LWdown

lwdown_srb

Psurf

psurf_ecor

Rainf

rainf_gswp

Rainf_C

rainf_c_gswp

Snowf

snowf_gswp