The Met Office: Forecasting Research

Technical Report

No. 103, October 1994: Harrison, M.S.J.; Legg, T.P.; Csima, G.; Development of a Monthly Forecast Facility for Hungary: Report on Results of Developments in the First Year

No. 104, July 1994: Foreman, S.J.; Alves, J.O.S.; Brooks, N.P.J.; Assessment of Surface Fluxes from Numerical Weather Prediction Systems

No. 105, August 1994: Brown, Caroline; Accuracy of Wind Measurements from an SPS Doppler Weather Radar

No. 110, September 1994: Penney, Graeme; A Sensitivity Study of SSM/I Statistical and Physical Liquid Water Path Algorithms Using a Radiative Transfer Model

No. 111, September 1994: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.; Barnes, R.T.H.; Trials of a Longer Timestep for Physics in the Limited Area Model

No. 112, February 1995: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.; Trial of a Longer Timestep for Physics in the Global Model

No. 113, March 1995: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.; Trials of Increased Vertical Resolution in the Limited Area Model

No 114, March 1995: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.; Trial of Increased Vertical Resolution in the Global Model

No. 116, September 1994: Lorenc, Andrew; Developments of an Operational Variational Assimilation Scheme

No. 117, September 1994: Lorenc, Andrew; Bayes' Theorem in Assimilation and Quality Control

No. 118, September 1994: Richards, N.; Bell, R.S.; Assimilation of AVHRR Cloud Top Temperature - Preliminary Experiments

No. 119, October 1994: Holt, M.W.; Improvements to the UKMO wave model swell dissipation and performance in light winds

No. 120, December 1994: Holt, M.W.; An intercomparison of the WAM and UKMO wave models run at the UK Met Office

No. 122, October 1994: Malcolm, A.J.; Evaluation of a numerical scheme on a set of test problems for the shallow water equations

No. 123, October 1994: Allam, Richard; A Review of the Autosat-2 Project

No. 124, March 1998: Cavalcanti, I.F.A.; Harrison, M.S.J.; Richardson, D.S.; Robertson, K.B.; Clifton, J.P.; Seasonal Prediction over South America: Ensemble Case Study and Contrasts Between 1993 and 1994

No. 125, October 1994: Wilson, C.A.; Rawlins, F.; Hammon, O.M.; Cause and Cure of the Superadiabatic Lapse Rate in the Limited Area and Global Models

No. 126, October 1994: Bonekamp, J.G.; Interative Solutions of the 3D Monge-Ampere Equation: PV inversion of model anomalies

No. 127, October 1994: Milton, S.F.; Wilson, C.; Stratton, R.A.; Hammon, O.; Rawlins, F.; Impact of a New Gravity Wave Drag Scheme and Orographic Roughess in the Unified Model. I. Global Model Tests

No. 128, November 1994: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.; Impact of a new Gravity Drag Scheme and Orographic Roughness in the Unified Model. II. Parallel Suite Trial for Global Model and Limited Area Models

No. 129, November 1994: Paniewicz, George; The Application of Pattern recognition Techniques to Cloud Detection

No. 130, October 31, 1994: Pamment, J.A.; Summary Report on the Test of the Automated Cloud Extrapolation Forecast for Nimrod

No. 131, November 1994: Jones, C.P.; Report on Quailty and Potential Use of AUTOSAT-2 SST Data

No. 132, November 1994: Bell, R.S.; Revised Moisture Assimilation - Results of a parallel trail

No. 133, November 30, 1994: Lunnon, R.W.; Ahmed, M.; The short term threat to transatlantic air traffic arising from a volcanic eruption on Iceland

No. 134, November 1994: Bell, M.J.; Experiments with the assimilation of thermal profile data into a dynamical model of the Atlantic Ocean

No. 135, November 1994: U.K. Met. Office Ocean Modellers; ed. M.J. Bell; Notes on How to choose Parameter Values for the Cox Numerical Ocean Circulation Model

No. 136, October 1994: Milton, S.F.; Van der Wal, A.; The Spin-Up in Precipitation and Evaporation of Global and LAM Unified Model Forecasts: January 1992-May 1994

No. 137, January 1995: Jones, C.P.; Experiments with Scaling the Soil Moisture Climatology

No. 138, November 1994: Mawson, M.H.; The Case for using semi-Lagrangian advection in the semi-Implicit integration scheme for the Unified Model

No. 139, January 1995: Milton, S.F.; Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.M.; Rawlins, F.; Impact of a New Gravity Wave Drag Scheme and Orographic Roughness in the Unified Model. III. Revised Schemes and Second Parallel Suite Trial for Global and Limited Area Models

No. 140, December 1994: Macpherson, B.; Radiosonde balloon drift - does it matter for data assimilation?

No. 141, December 20, 1994: Thomas, N.; Conway, B.J.; Golding, B.W.; Results of merging automated nowcasts and mesoscale model forecasts of precipitation

No. 142, December 1994: Allam, Thomas; Detecting cumulus clouds in satellite images using image processing techniques:- a preliminary study.

No. 144, December 21, 1994: Gairey, A.D.; Developments in the Use of a roaming search area when generating satellite winds using water vapour imagery

No. 145, December 1994: Allam, Richard; The automatic flaggin of the quality of products generated by Autosat-2

No. 146, January 1995: Evans, R.E.; Creation of Data Fields Required for Effective Roughness Parameterization

No. 147, December 1994: Dickinson, A.; Salmond, D.J.; Macrotasking the Atmospheric Prediction Component of the Unified Model

No. 148, January 1995: Lorrimer, S.J.; A Comparison of Local and Global Schemes for Correcting Negative Specific Humidities in Forecast Mode

No. 149, February 1995: Kelsall, S.; A Study of the quality of surface windspeed and wave height observations from sea stations

No. 150, January 1995: Clayton, Adam M.; A Comparison Between UARs and Operational Global Analyses

No. 151, January 1995: Jones, C.D.; Macpherson, B.; A Hydrology Correction Scheme for the Mesoscale Model using Observed Precipitation Rates

No. 152, February 1995: Van der Wal, Anette; Blocking in the Global Unified Model - It's Characteristics and Predictability

No. 153, March 1995: Harrison, M.S.J; Richardson, D.S.; Robertson, K.; Woodcock, A.; Medium-Range Ensembles Using Both the ECMWF T63 and Unified Models - An Initial Report

No. 154, February 28, 1995: Jackson, P.M.; Thresholding Methods for the Identification of Cloud in Meteosat Imagery

No. 155, March 1995: Maycock, A.J.; A Report on the Performance of and Hourly Data Assimilation Cycle for the Mesoscale Model

No. 156, March 1995: Golding, Brian; Report on the First Nimrod Trail

No. 157, April 7, 1995: Golding, B.W.; Formulation & Performance of an Algorithm for Determining Precipitation Type from a Rain Rate Forecast, Using NWP Model Parameters

No. 158, April 10, 1995: Bader, M.J.; Observations in the UK Unified Model and Recent Impact Studies

No. 159, April 1995: Alves, J.O.S.; Bell, M.J.; Brooks, N.P.J.; Cooper, A.L.; Foreman, S.J.; Forbes, R.M.; Sherlock, C.G.; Performance review of the prototype FOAM system

No. 160, May 1995: Clark, P.A.; Jackson, S.D.; Maycock, B.; Smith, R.N.B.; Woltering, S.A.; The Spring 1995 Mesoscale Model Upgrade

No. 161, April 25, 1995: Brown, R.; Enhancement of the Nimrod Satellite Precipitation Scheme to diagnose Rainfall Rate

No. 162, May 1995: Milton, S.F.; Wilson, C.A.; Van der Wal, A.; A review of systematic errors in the global Unified Model used for NWP 1994-95

No. 163, May 1995: Hand, W.H.; Report on tests merging extrapolation and Mesoscale model cloud forecasts for Nimrod

No. 164, May 1995: Grant, Roger J.; Bader, Michael J.; Improving NWP analyses in data-sparse areas

No. 165, May 1995: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.M.; Milton, S.F.; Trial of a Local Correction of Negative Humidity and Modified Horizontal Diffusion Near Steep Orography in the Global and Limited Area Model

No. 166, May 1995: Maycock, A.J.; The Spring Mesoscale Model upgrade Part II - focus on data assimilation

No. 167, July 1995: Forbes, R.M.; Experiments with the assimilation of surface temperature and thermal profile observations into a dynamical model of the Atlantic Ocean

No. 168, June 1995: Mawson, M.H.; Tests of the proposed semi-Implicit integration scheme for the Unified Model, Part I: Idealised Asian Monsoon

No. 169, July 1995: Hammon, O.M.; Wilson, C.A.; Robinson, D.; Bell, R.S.; A Continuous assimilation trial for the Limited Area Model

No. 170, July 5, 1995: Grant, J.R.; Bader, M.J.; Waters, A.J.; Forecasting Thunderstorms in "Spanish Plumes"

No. 171, July 1995: Lawless, A.S.; Testing of the perturbation forecast model, Part 1: The idealised Asian monsoon simulation with no orography

No. 172, July 1995: Anderson, S.R.; Graham, R.J.; Bader, M.J.; Grant, J.R.; Impact of additional UK radiosonde ascents on NWP forecasts of trough disruption events

No. 173, July 1995: Graham, R.J.; Anderson, S.R.; The relative utility of current observation systems to global-scale NWP forecasts; preliminary results

No. 175, August 1995: Leighton, J.R.; Results from a parallel trial to investigate the use of METEOSAT water vapour SATOBs

No. 176, August 1995: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.M.; Second trial of increased vertical resolution in the global and limited area models

No. 177, August 1995: Hackett, M.; Kitchen, M.; Evaluation of the Nimrod Gauge Adjustment Scheme. A Report to the Nimrod Project Board

No. 178, September 1995: Golding, B.W.; Report on the Second Nimrod Trial

No. 179, December 1995: Milton, S.F.; Lorrimer, S.J.; Impact of 3rd Climate version Physics Changes on the Global Unified Model used for NWP

No. 180, January 1996: Malcolm, A.J.; Evaluation of the Proposed New Unified Model Scheme vs the Current Unified Model Scheme on the Shallow Water Equations

No. 181, December 1995: Chalcraft, B.; Woltering, S.A.; Clark, P.A.; Tests of Third Climate Version Physics in the UK Mesoscale Model

No. 182, April 1996: Mawson, M.H.; Stability of the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian scheme proposed for the Unified Model

No. 183, February 1996: Macpherson, B.; Initialization of Soil Moisture in the Operational Mesocale Model

No. 184, December 1995: Evans, R.E.; Impact of data files created from high resolution orography in the Unified Model

No. 185, February 1996: Richardson, D.S.; Harrison, M.S.J.; The Use of Ensemble Forecasting Techniques at the UK Meteorological Offce, now and in the future

No. 186, February 1996: Barwell, Brian; English, Stephen; GLOSS Parallel Trial Report, A Review of the GLOSS Parallel Run November 28 to December 18 1995

No. 188, March 1996: Hammon, O.M.; Lorrimer, S.J.; Parallel trial of outstanding 3CV physics, correction of boundary layer scheme and revision of orography ancillary fies

No. 189, March 1996: Grant, J.R.; Graham, R.J.; Bader, M.J.; Impact of Drifting Buoy Observations on an NWP forecast - the case of 29th September 1995

No. 190, May 1996: Wilson, C.A.; Hammon, O.M.; Leighton, J.R.; Trial of an Early Data Cut-Off (T+90 minutes) in the Global Model

No. 191, May 1996: Lorrimer, S.J.; Hammon, O.M.; Wilson, C.A.; Parallel Trial of T+120 minute and T+150 minute Data Cutoffs in the Global Medium

No. 192, April 1996: Hand, W.H.; Steadman, D.; Report on experiments to improve precipitation nowcasts in Nimrod

No. 193, May 1996: Halsey, N.G.J.; Proposals for work on wake vortices for the remainder of 1996 and brief thoughts on possible work during 1997

No. 194, June 1996: Jones, C.D.; Macpherson, B.; A Latent Heat Nudging Scheme for the Assimilation of Precipitation Data into the Mesoscale Model

No. 195, July 1996: Graham, R.J.; Anderson, S.R.; Data Impact on UM forecasts for 12GMT 25 November 1995 (CFO workshop, January 1996)

No. 197, August 1996: Jones, C.P.; Use of High Resolution Land Use Data in the U.K. Mesoscale Model

No. 198, September 1996: Macpherson, Bruce; Chalcraft, Byron; Maycock, Adam; Golding, Brian; Assimilation of MOPS moisture data from the Nimrod nowcasting system into the UK Mesoscale Model

No. 199, September 1996: Lorrimer, S.J.; Hammon, O.M.; Wilson, C.A.; Parallel Trial of High Horizontal Resolution Global NWP Model With Two Hour Data Cutoff

No 200, October 1996: Wright, Bruce; Thomas, Nigel; An Objective Visibility Analysis and Very-Short-Range Forecasting System

No. 201, November 1996: Macpherson, B.; Chalcraft, B.V.; Wilson, C.A.; Assimilation of MOPS cloud data in the Limited Area Model

No. 202, October 1996: Brown, R.; Holpin, G.; Evaluation of the Use of SSM/I Data and a Microphysical Model to Establish an Aircraft Icing Environment

No. 203, October 1996: Clark, P.A.; Hopwood, W.P.; Best, M.J.; Dunlop, C.C.; Maisey, P.E.; Assessment of the single column UM for use as a local forecasting tool: suitability and recommended configuration

No. 204, November 1996: Patton, Ruth; Analysis of User Requirement for Commercial/Transport Aviation

No. 205, November 1996: Patton, Ruth; Analysis of User Requirement for General Aviation

No. 206, January 1997: Pankiewicz, George; Satellite Imagery Pattern Recognition Products for Numerical Weather Prediction

No. 207, January 1997: Hopwood, W.P.; Clark, P.A.; A Sensitivity Study of the Single Clumn UM to assess which potentially observable quantities are the most critical to the forecast of fog

No. 208, January 1997: Hand, W.H.; Report on observation impact studies on cloud and visibility analyses and forecasts in Nimrod during November 1996

No. 209, February 1997: Butterworth, P.; Investigation into Satellite Winds - I. Production

No. 210, February 1997: Butterworth, P.; Investigation into Satellite Winds - II. Treatment at UKMO

No. 211, February 1997: Butterworth, P.; Investigation into Satellite Winds - III. Current Status and Recommendations

No. 212, March 1997: Jones, C.D.; Macpherson, B.; Sensitivity of the Limited Area Model to assimilation of precipitation estimates derived from lightning data

No. 213, June 1997: Clark, P.A.; Hopwood, W.P.; Best, M.J.; Dunlop, C.C.; Maisey, P.E.; Assessment f the first version of the Site Specific Forecast Model

No. 214, June 1997: Graham, R.J.; Anderson, S.R.; Bader, M.J.; The impact of automating and thinning the "visual" part of UK SYNOP reports on Mesoscale Model forecasts

No. 215, June 1997: Dunlop, C.C.; Clark, P.A.; Forcing the Single Column UM from the Mesoscale Model

No 216, June 1997: Douglas, R.J.; Decomposition of weather forecast error using rearrangements of functions

No. 217, July 1997: Wright, B.J.; Improvements to the Nimrod Visibility Analysis/Forecast System

No. 218, July 1997: Graham, R.J.; Anderson, S.; Grant, J.R.; Bader, M.J.; Recent Data Impact Studies at UKMO - a review

No. 219, July 1997: Whyte, K.W.; A Method for the Treatment of Semi-transparent Cirrus in the Nimrod Cloud-top Height Scheme and its Effect on the Mesoscale Model

No. 220, July 1997: Best, M.J.; Hopwood, W.P.; Jackson, S.D.; The tile Surface Exchange Scheme: Performance within the Site Specific Forecast Model

No. 221, September 1997: Turner, J.A.; The Use of Gravity Wave Drag Parameters to Predict Mountain Wave Turbulence for Civil Aviation

No. 222, November 1997: Wright, Bruce; A New Visibility Analysis/Forecast System for Nimrod

No. 223, October 1997: Spink, Emily; Method for the representation of a verification of Terminal Aerodrome forecasts (TAFs)

No. 224, November 1997: Candy, B.; A Comparison of Four Different Sea Surface Temperature Analysis Schemes

No. 225, November 1997: Bader, Mike; Chalcraft, Byron; Grant, Roger; Wilson, Clive; The June 97 'UK Monsoon' - Key Events and Assessment of Model Forecast

No. 226, November 1997: Golding, B.W.; Performance of the Nimrod System

No. 227, December 1997: Halsy, N.; Wind Variability at Heathrow, in the Context of Wake Vortex Behavior, and Discussion of Desirable Future Work

No. 228, December 1997: Wilson, C.; Culverwell, I.; New Mesoscale Model Configuration for the CRAY T3E. Report on tests to identify "best domain and resolution"

No. 229, December 1997: Ridley, J.K.; Holpin, G.E.; An initial assessment of parameters derived from SSM/I data with a 1DVAR scheme

No. 230, January 14, 1998: Milton, S.F.; Lorrimer, S.J.; Chalcraft, B.V.; Parallel trials of enhanced vertical and horizontal resolution in the global Unified Model

No. 231, December 1997: Stone, D.J.; Satellite-based techniques for estimating tropical convective precipitation

No. 232, January 1998: Rickard, G.J.; An Archive of Aircraft Meteorological Observations and Model forecast Meteorological Parameters

No. 233, January 1998: Dumelow, R.; Bader, M.; Grant, J.R.; Anderson, S.R.; Prior, J.; Effect of Demise of the Omega Wind-Measuring System on NWP Forecasts

No. 234, January 1998: Rickard, G.J.; Lunon, R.W.; Upper Air Winds: Prediction and Verification in the Context of Commercial Aviation Data

No. 235, January 1998: Rickard, G.J.; Lunnon, R.W.; 1997 Comparison of Control and High Resolution Forecast Winds Using Commercial Aviation Data

No. 236, January 22, 1998: Butterworth, P.; Tests of Revised Quality Control Processing for Satellite Winds

No. 237, January 1998: Hopwood, W.P.; Source Area Modelling of Surface Fluxes: Part 1 - Teory and Implementation in the Site Specific Forecast Model

No. 238, June 1998: Candy, B.; Harris, A.R.; Skin To Bulk Conversion of Sea Surface Temperatures from ATSR-2

No. 239, March 20 1998: Ringer, M.A.; Tropical Convective Rainfall in the Global UM: Initial Comparison with Estimates Derived from Meteosat Infared Imagery

No. 240, March 1998: Dunlop, C.C.; Stable Boundary layers: sensitivity to stability functions and comparison with observations

No. 241, April 1998: Evans, R.E.; Graham, R.J.; Harrison, M.S.J.; Shutts, G.J.; Preliminary Investigations Into the Effect of Adding Stochastic Backscatter to the Unified Model

No. 242, May 8, 1998: Bysouth, Clare; A Comparison of Clear Air Turbulence Predictions

No. 243, June 1998: Evans, R.E.; Harrison, M.S.J.; Graham, R.J.; Joint Medium Range Ensembles from the UKMO and ECMWF Models

No. 244, May 1998: Halsey, N.G.J.; The Prediction of Crosswind Components over Very Short Periods in the Context of Wake Vortex Avoidance

No. 245, April 1998: Butterworth, Pauline; Satellite Winds: The Asymmetry Check Revisited

No. 246, May 13, 1998: Eyre, J.R.; Offiler, D.; Radio Occultation Measurements in Operational Meteorology

No. 247, May 14, 1998: Healy, S.B.; A Statistical Comparison of GPS/MET Radio Occultation Data with Numerical Weather Prediction Analyses

No. 248, September 1998: Pankiezicz, G.S.; Butterworth, P.; Conway, B.J.; Harris, A.R.; Jones, D.C.; Ridley, J.K.; Ringer, M.A.; An Investigation Into Environmental Satellite Imagery Products

No. 249, September 1998: Lunnon, R.W.; Optimum routing in the North Atlantic: Costs associated with a constrained system

No. 250, October 1998: Anderson, S.R.; Graham, R.J.; Bader, M.J.; The Impact of Observations on Mesoscale Model Forecasts of 3-hourly Rainfall Accumulations